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Forging Cost Reductions 

Improve Your Parts

Forging can often create economic advantages over other metalworking methods that save time and materials, as well as improve production efficiencies. Scot Forge employee-owners collaborate with you to discover the most viable solutions for your project. Our highly trained account managers, forge engineers, process engineers and metallurgists add decades of knowledge and experience to your team.

Metalworking alternative open-die forging

Discover:

Material Optimization

Forging can measurably reduce material costs since it requires less starting stock to produce many part shapes and can achieve near-net shapes, saving on scrap costs.

Part Design & Component Reduction

By minimizing the number of components in a fabricated part and enhancing design, Scot Forge can produce parts with increased quality while reducing overall cost and production time.

Machining Economies

Forging also can yield advantages in machining, lead time and tool life. Savings come from forging to a closer-to-finish, or near-net, size than what is capable by alternative metal sources such as torch cutting plate or boring bar. Therefore, less machining is needed to finish the part, with the added benefits of shorter lead times and reduced wear and tear on your equipment.

That Result In:

Reduced Rejection Rates

Often discovering a defect in a cast part doesn’t happen until a part has been on a machine for hours, which can be a headache. But, when this happens to multiple parts it can be a nightmare. It takes time and money to replace parts, puts hours on the machine and increases labor costs, not to mention the lost opportunity cost.

Because forging has a 3:1 minimum reduction, porosity and veining are eliminated yielding improved structural integrity. Coupled with weld-free design, forging can dramatically reduce part rejection.

Production Efficiencies

Scot Forge has many different sizes of starting ingots and billets on hand, providing a wide variety of ready-to-forge inventoried grades. Using the forging process, the same part can be produced from many different sizes of starting ingots or billets, allowing for a wider variety of inventoried grades. This flexibility means that forged parts of virtually any grade can be manufactured more quickly and economically.

Real Examples of Forging Reducing Cost

Material Optimization

For example, torch cutting a ring from plate (A), all corner stock and the full center slug are lost, as a result you pay for the excess material. With a forging (B), the part is shaped to a near-net size with minimal waste and optimized use of starting stock.

Forging allows custom sizes and material savings

Our extensive inventory of in-house tooling allows for many custom sizes with quick turnaround for low quantity jobs. Also, for unique applications, we can design specialized tooling.

Problem

When hub shapes are achieved through machining solid bar stock or flame cutting plate, waste is an inescapable part of the process.

Solid bar stock or flame cut plate hub

  • When machining a shape from solid bar or flame cutting plate, all excess material—material paid for—is lost.
  • Machining or flame cutting means costly machine time, lowered tool life and increased freight costs for material.
  • Most importantly, the uni-directional grain flow of both bar and plate increases the likelihood of failure due to fatigue.

Solid bar stock or flame cut plate hub

Solution

Custom forging of hub shapes improves quality, lowers material costs, and offers maximum flexibility.

Custom forging hub

  • Forgings save on both material and freight costs because it requires less starting stock.
  • Our forgings are produced to a nearer net shape, reducing machine time and labor costs.
  • The optimum combination of strength, toughness and fatigue resistance in the hub is achieved by the continuous grain flow which comes through forging.
  • When machining a shape from a solid bar or flame cutting a plate, all byproduct is wasted at the expense of the customer.

Custom forging hub

Hubs 59% material savings

59% material savings

Forged Sizes

  • 20" O.D. X 3" Face
  • Hub one side
  • 9" O.D. X 4-1/2" Projection
  • Weight = 348 lbs.

Plate Size

  • 20" Square X 7-1/2" Thick
  • Weight = 850 lbs.

Hubs 43% material savings

43% material savings

Forged Sizes

  • 18-1/4" O.D. X 3-7/8" Face
  • Hub one side
  • 10-5/8" O.D. X 6-1/8" Projection
  • 3" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 421 lbs.

Bar Size

  • 18-1/4" O.D. X 10" Long
  • Weight = 741 lbs.

Hubs 66% material savings

66% material savings

Forged Sizes

  • 9" O.D. X 1-1/8" Face
  • Hub one side
  • 4" O.D. X 1-3/4" Projection
  • Hub other side
  • 4" O.D. X 3-1/2" Projection
  • Weight = 39 lbs.

Bar Size

  • 9" O.D. X 6-3/8" Long
  • Weight = 115 lbs.

Open die forging and torch cutting allows for a surprisingly large range of sizes and shapes

Torch cutting to near net shape saves on machining times without incurring custom die costs.

Problem

Castings are not always economical and can extend deliveries. Machining from a large block or plate can result in excessive machine times.

  • The need to manufacture dies for specifically shaped castings often result in extended deliveries
  • Castings produce enlarged grain structure, which lowers mechanical properties
  • Excessive costs for small quantity casting runs are incurred due to expensive molds and set-up times
  • When forging to near net is not an option, machining excessive amounts of material from plate is inefficient

Solution

Our forging and torch cutting capabilities allow for intricate jobs to be manufactured economically and with shortened lead times.

  • Our forgings can often be manufactured without the need for custom dies, and our CNC torches can be individually programmed for specialty shapes
  • Forgings produce improved integrity in the finished part for better product reliability
  • Material and labor cost savings through the combination of custom forging near net finished sized with subsequent contour torch cutting.
  • Compared to traditional machining, torch cutting is more efficient, which results in quick turnaround
  • Complete torch cutting capability including pre- and post-heating processes to aid cutting accuracy and relieving stresses for over one hundred different grades of carbon and alloy steels

Torch cut part

Material

  • 1026

Approximate Size

  • 16" Thick X 38" O.D. with a 19" I.D.

Torch cut part

Material

  • 1045

Approximate Size

  • 15" Thick X 20" Wide X 63" Long

Torch cut part

Material

  • 1045

Approximate Size

  • 15" Thick X 20" Wide X 63" Long

Torch cut part

Material

  • 1035

Approximate Size

  • 9" Thick X 26" Wide X 45" Long

Torch cut part

Material

  • 4340

Approximate Size

  • 14" Thick X 30-1/2" Square

Torch cut part

Material

  • 4140

Approximate Size

  • 6" Thick X 53" Wide X 57" Long Cam Shape

Torch cut part

Material

  • 1018

Approximate Size

  • 12" Thick X 18" High X 48" Long

Torch cut part

Material

  • 1021

Approximate Size

  • 11" Thick X 34" O.D. with a hub on one side of 13-1/2" O.D. X 2-1/2" Projection and a 7" I.D.

Torch cut part

Material

  • 4140

Approximate Size

  • 18" Square X 24" Long

Our forging process allows for high-quality hollows

Unlike rolled and welled plate, our hollows are forged seamlessly and utilize in-house tooling to create near net and low cost options.

Problem

Centrifugal castings are not always economical and can extend deliveries.

  • Heavy wall centrifugal castings often fail to meet critical I.D. surface requirements and require welding and re-machining.
  • The need to manufacture dies for specially shaped centrifugals often results in extended deliveries.
  • Excessive costs for small-quantity runs are incurred due to expensive molds and setup times.
  • Centrifugal castings produce enlarged grain structure, which lowers mechanical properties.

Solution

Custom hollow forgings offer consistently high quality, often at lower costs and with quicker turnaround times.

  • Hollow forgings are uniformly forged with guaranteed soundness regardless of section size.
  • Our extensive in-house tooling enables us to forge a large variety of hollows without added costs or extended lead times.
  • Setup time is nonexistent for hollow forgings, keeping costs and lead time to a minimum whether the quantity is one or one hundred.
  • Our forging process produces a seamless cross section and continuous grain flow which yields the optimum combination of fatigue strength and toughness.
  • The hollow forging process offers a greater variety of O.D. as well as I.D. configurations thus reducing machining time and cost.
  • Using our custom engineered, in-house tooling, we are able to provide thick walled hollows with multiple steps on both the O.D. and I.D.

Forged hollow

Forging Process

Rejection - 0%

Continuous grain flow shown on a stepped O.D. and I.D. in the as-forged condition.

Cast hollow

Centrifugal Casting Process

Rejection - 10%

The same part shown with columnar grain flow in the as-cast condition.

Note extra stock on the O.D. and I.D. required for centrifugal casting vs. forging

Forged hollow size capabilities

Size capabilities

Simple hollow

  • Max. O.D. = 70"
  • Min. Wall = 2" thick
  • Max. Length = 360"
  • Max. Wt. = 70,000 lbs.

50% forged hollow material savings

50% material savings

Forged Size

  • 26" O.D. X 5" Long, Step
  • 21" O.D. X 20" Long, Step
  • 17" O.D. X 20" Long
  • 11" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 2,789 lbs.

Centrifugal Cast Size

  • 26" O.D. X 45" Long
  • 11" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 5,557 lbs.

58% forged hollow material savings

58% material savings

Forged Size

  • 32-7/8" O.D. X 5-7/8" Long, Step
  • 18-1/2" O.D. X 21-1/4" Long, Step
  • 32-7/8" O.D. X 5-1/8" Long
  • 15-3/4" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 2,483 lbs.

Centrifugal Cast Size

  • 32-7/8" O.D. X 32-1/4" Long
  • 15-3/4" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 5,975 lbs.

36% forged hollow material savings

35% material savings

Forged Size

  • 15" O.D. X 7" Long, Step
  • 25" O.D. X 15" Long, Step
  • 15" O.D. X 7" Long
  • 9" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 2,264 lbs.

Centrifugal Cast Size

  • 25" O.D. X 29" Long
  • 9" I.D. Through
  • Weight = 3,510 lbs.

Forged rings are able to be individually customized for near net shape

In material cost, versatility and quality, forged ring solutions deliver superior outcomes compared to flame cutting rings from plate.

Problem

Flame cutting a ring from plate is not always viable when meeting material requirements, or economical.

Flame cut ring

  • Material costs are increased due to removal of excess corner stock and center slug.
  • As desired thickness of the ring increases, availability of plate sizes and grades drastically decreases.
  • Uni-directional grain flow of plate increases susceptibility of ring to fatigue failure.

Flame cut ring

Solution

A custom-forged ring allows greater versatility and improved quality while reducing material cost.

Forged ring

  • The forging process moves and shapes material to ordered ring size with minimal material waste.
  • Required ring thickness has no effect on the virtually limitless combinations of sizes and grades available.
  • Contoured grain flow within forged ring yields optimum combination of strength, toughness and fatigue resistance.
  • The porosity and laminations sometimes encountered in plate is eliminated with a custom-forged ring.

Forged ring

43% ring material savings

43% material savings

Material

  • 4340

Finished Size


  • 46-5/8" O.D. X 26-1/4" I.D. X 
6-5/8" Face

Material Needed to Produce


  • Forging = 2,925 lbs.
  • Plate = 5,090 lbs.

43% ring material savings

43% material savings

Material

  • 1021

Finished Size


  • 22-5/8" O.D. X 17" I.D. X 9" Face

Material Needed to Produce


  • Forging = 700 lbs.
  • Plate = 1,580 lbs.

Size variety ring

Size variety

Material

  • 1045

Finished Size

  • 52-1/4" O.D. X 19-3/4" I.D. X 31" Face

Material Needed to Produce


  • Forging = 19,500 lbs.
  • Plate = Unavailable at this thickness

Our forged stepped spindles allow endless flexibility in size and variation

Reduce material waste, machine times, and freight costs with forged stepdown solutions instead of machining solid bars.

Problem

Machining a solid bar to form a step-down causes wasteful use of material, labor and time.

Machined spindle

  • When machining the step-down, all excess material, as shown here, is lost.
  • Machining time, tool life and freight costs are excessive.
  • Grain flow within the bar is exposed when machined, thus making the material more susceptible to fatigue failure.

Machined spindle

Solution

Custom-forging the bar to form a step-down lowers the cost for a value-added part.

Forged spindle

  • Forging requires less starting material than a straight round bar machined to shape.
  • Less machining saves money, time and tool life while producing a closer-to-finish shape.
  • Freight and handling costs are lowered because a forged stepdown weighs less than a bar.
  • Contoured grain flow within a forged stepdown yields greater impact and directional strength.

Forged spindle

64% forged spindle material savings

64% material savings

Forged Sizes

  • 18-1/4" O.D. X 16-1/2" Long, Step
  • 11-1/4" O.D. X 8" Long, Step
  • 6-3/4" O.D. X 48" Long
  • Weight = 1,935 lbs.

Bar Size

  • 18-1/4" O.D. X 72-1/2" Long
  • Weight = 5,375 lbs.

49% forged spindle material savings

48% material savings

Forged Sizes

  • 4" O.D. X 19-13/16" Long
  • 6-1/2" O.D. X 9-3/8" Long, Step
  • 4" O.D. X 13-1/16" Long, Step
  • Weight = 207 lbs.

Bar Size

  • 6-1/2" O.D. X 42-1/4" Long
  • Weight = 367 lbs.

59% forged spindle material savings

59% material savings

Forged Sizes

  • 7-1/8" O.D. X 40" Long, Step
  • 10-1/2" O.D. X 18" Long, Step
  • 14" O.D. X 12" Long, Step
  • 10-1/2" O.D. X 18" Long, Step
  • 7-1/8" O.D. X 40" Long
  • Weight = 2,310 lbs.

Bar Size

  • 14" O.D. X 128" Long
  • Weight = 5,582 lbs.

Part Design & Component Reduction

Part Design

Rolled and welded or cut rings from plate are susceptible to fatigue, and carry excess material and processing costs. In the cases below, these common problems were solved by switching to the forging process.

Product/application

Corrosion-resistant profiled ring, 200" O.D. and 42" face

Material

Nickel Aluminum Bronze

Previous processing problems

Three different metalworking processes were attempted to make one ring: a forging, a casting, and a rolled and welded plate.

  • The cast ring failed sonic requirements and had inclusion problems which required excessive machining and weld repair.
  • Extensive welding on the fabricated ring reduced part integrity, jeopardized corrosion resistance and caused distortion of the ring's shape.

Forging as the solution

Today a forged, profiled seamless rolled ring produces unsurpassed structural integrity.

  • Overall strength is increased through forging's directional grain flow.
  • With the absence of welding, part integrity, corrosion resistance and shape are maintained.
Forged submarine propulsor

Product/application

Large gear

Material

Alloy Steel

Cast shovel

Previous processing problems

The part was previously produced as a cast ring, with high maintenance and repair costs.

  • The absence of grain flow and directional strength caused part integrity problems.
  • Gears were breaking in the field due to fatigue failure, shortening the service life of the product.
Forged shovel

Forging as the solution

Today the part is made as a contoured forged ring.

  • Forging yields improved mechanical properties, reducing the risk of part fatigue and breakage.
  • The continuous grain flow, provided by the forging process, optimizes part integrity and impact toughness.

Product/application

Bearing application component

Material

Alloy Steel

Ring size

95-7/8" O.D. X 40-5/8" I.D.
X 8-5/8" Thick

Cast bearing component

Previous processing problems

The past production process involved torch cutting a heavy wall ring from plate.

  • Excess waste was substantial, since all corner stock and the full center slug of the plate were lost.
  • Desired plate sizes and grades were sometimes difficult to obtain due to ring thickness.
  • Parts were rejected due to inclusions found on the polished surface of the plate.
Forged bearing component

Forging as the solution

Today a custom-forged rolled ring allows greater size versatility while oftentimes reducing waste and material costs.

  • Porosity, laminations and inclusions sometimes found in plate are eliminated through the refined grain flow inherent in a forging.

Component Reduction

When Scot Forge evaluates prints or specifications, we look for ways to eliminate unnecessary steps and expenses while making a superior part. For example we could forge a single component instead of welding multiple pieces together.

Product/application

Heat exchanger body

Material

90/10 Copper Nickel

Navel

Previous processing problems

Part originally consisted of three components: one rolled and welded plate and two forged rings welded to the ends.

  • The two different metalworking processes made the welding difficult with inconsistent results.
  • Inclusions were present in the plate, requiring extensive weld repair and reinspection.
  • Weld areas required expensive X-ray testing.
Navel

Forging as the solution

Today the part is made as a single forged piece with integral flanges.

  • Consistent quality is assured throughout the part, eliminating the instances of inclusions, making welding unnecessary.
  • Without welding, X-ray testing is not needed.

Product/application

Cylinder rod for bucket

Material

Low-Alloy Steel

Shovel

Previous processing problems

Previously the part was made from a cast head welded to a hot rolled bar.

  • Casting proved too weak for the application, resulting in shortened product life.
  • The need for welding lengthened process times.
  • In the field, excessive loads on the cast head caused part failures and required subsequent repairs.
Shovel

Forging as the solution

Today the part is made as a one-piece forging.

  • Forging allowed the head and shaft to be produced as one part.
  • The strength and structural integrity of the forged material met demanding application requirements.
  • The elimination of welding has shortened part production process time.
  • The forged head is able to withstand excessive loads without failure.

Product/application

Mixer shaft

Material

Stainless Steel

Paper

Previous processing problems

The former part was a rolled bar welded to a forged blank.

  • Heating required during the welding process changed the hardness and tensile properties in the weld zone, making it necessary to re-heat treat the part.
  • Cracking was occurring in the weld layer, rework was needed, and there were many failures in the field.
Paper

Forging as the solution

Today the part is made as a one-piece forging.

  • No welding or heating is required, improving properties and eliminating non-value-added steps.
  • Part strength has improved due to one-piece construction and continuous grain flow, resulting in less rework, fewer rejections and increased part life.

Machining Economies

Below are some examples of how forged hollow products have served as a customized solution for many of Scot Forge's customers—providing a stronger, high-quality product while eliminating excess time, cost and material waste. As you can see less machining is needed to finish the part, with the added benefits of shorter lead times and reduced wear and tear on your equipment.

Product/application

Piston rod

Material

Low-Alloy Steel

Piston rod

Previous processing problems

Formerly, a solid steel bar was bored, machined, heat treated, and then finish machined with a tapered inside diameter.

  • Bar size limitations, and the need to bore out the I.D. resulted in extensive material waste.
  • Excessive machining caused high costs and shortened tool life.
  • Since the I.D. was not tapered prior to heat treating, core hardness could not be achieved in that area.
Piston rod

Forging as the solution

  • Today, custom hollow forgings produce a near net shape, reducing material by 23%.
  • Less machining saves time, cost and tool life.
  • Tapered I.D. is achieved during the forging process, which allows core hardness requirements to be met during heat treating.

Product/application

Paper rollers

Material

Carbon Steel

Previous processing problems

Off-the-shelf tubing was previously used to form this part.

  • Limited available sizes often required excess machining.
  • Frequent inclusions resulted in poor surface quality and low part strength, causing internal rework and high part rejections.

Forging as the solution

  • Custom-tailored hollow forging has eliminated the need for excessive machining.
  • The combination of using cleaner material and the forging process prevents inclusions, raising part strength and quality. This has solved former internal processing problems.
Tubing

Product/application

Recoil cylinder

Material

Low-Alloy Steel

Defense hallows

Previous processing problems

A centrifugal casting with a straight I.D. and single-step O.D. was formerly used.

  • Failure to meet critical I.D. surface requirements often caused extensive welding and machining repair.
  • High rejection rates were experienced due to poor casting integrity.
  • Excessive reworking costs and failure to meet critical production deadlines were causing major problems.
Defense hallows

Forging as the solution

Today, a hollow-stepped forging is produced with an integral-stepped I.D., delivering higher value with a stronger, near-net shape.

  • Hollow forging the part with a double O.D. and I.D. produced a stronger, near-net shape at less cost.
  • Forging produces a continuous grain flow, yielding the optimum combination of fatigue strength and toughness.
  • The need for weld and machine repair is no longer required; the integrity of the forging eliminates part rejection.