The following is a White Paper explaining
the Open Die and Rolled Ring Forging Process, applications
When buyers must select a process and supplier for the production of an important metal part, they face an enormous array of possible alternatives. A
great many metalworking processes are now available, each
offering a unique set of capabilities, costs and advantages.
The forging process is ideally suited to many part applications,
however some buyers may be unaware of the exclusive benefits
available only from this ancient form of metal forming.
In fact, forging is often the optimum process, in terms
of both part quality and cost-efficiency-especially for
applications that require maximum part strength, special
sizes or critical performance specifications.
This Whitepaper is
also available in pdf
There are several forging processes
available, including impression or closed die, cold forging,
and extrusion. However,here we will discuss in detail the
methods, application and comparative benefits of the open
die and seamless rolled ring forging processes. We invite
you to consider this information when selecting the optimum
process for the production of your metal parts.
A Historical Perspective
Perhaps the oldest mechanical method
of metalworking known to man, forging traces its origins from
ancient Egypt through the blacksmith shops of the pre-industrial
period, and directly to the high-technology forging plants
To meet the changing needs of industry,
forging has evolved to incorporate the tremendous advances
in equipment, computers and electronic controls that have
occurred in recent years. These sophisticated tools complement
the creative human skills which, even today, are essential
to the success of every forging made. Modern forging plants
are capable of producing superior quality metal parts in
a virtually limitless array of sizes, shapes, materials
At its most basic level, forging is
the process of forming and shaping metals through the use
of hammering, pressing or rolling. The process begins with
starting stock, usually a cast ingot (or a "cogged"
billet which has already been forged from a cast ingot), which
is heated to its plastic deformation temperature, then upset
or "kneaded" between dies to the desired shape and
During this hot forging process, the cast,
coarse grain structure is broken up and replaced by finer
grains. Low-density areas, microshrinkage and gas porosity
inherent in the cast metal are consolidated through the
reduction of the ingot, achieving sound centers and structural
integrity. Mechanical properties are therefore improved
through the elimination of the cast structure, enhanced
density, and improved homogeneity. Forging also provides
means for aligning the grain flow to best obtain desired
directional strengths. Secondary processing, such as heat
treating, can also be used to further refine the part.
How the open die forging process
affects the crystal structure.
No other metalworking process can equal
forging in its ability to develop the optimum combination
complete copy of the Forging White Paper is available
in pdf format.
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