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Forging Advantages

Part Integrity

1. Directional Strength
By mechanically deforming the heated metal under tightly controlled conditions, forging produces predictable and uniform grain size and flow characteristics. Forging stock is also typically pre-worked to refine the dendritic structure of the ingot and remove defects or porosity. These qualities translate into superior metallurgical and mechanical qualities, and deliver increased directional strength in the final part.
Cross section of continuous grain flow of custom forged contoured ring.
Cross section of continuous grain flow of custom forged contoured ring.


2. Structural Strength
Forging also provides a degree of structural integrity that is unmatched by other metalworking processes. Forging eliminates internal voids and gas pockets that can weaken metal parts. By dispersing segregation of alloys or nonmetallics, forging provides superior chemical uniformity. Predictable structural integrity reduces part inspection requirements, simplifies heat treating and machining, and ensures optimum part performance under field-load conditions.

3. Impact Strength
Parts can also be forged to meet virtually any stress, load or impact requirement. Proper orientation of grain flow assures maximum impact strength and fatigue resistance. The high-strength properties of the forging process can be used to reduce sectional thickness and overall weight without compromising final part integrity.

Grain Flow Comparison
Forged Bar:
Directional alignment through the forging process has been deliberately oriented in a direction requiring maximum strength. This also yields ductility and resistance to impact and fatigue.
Forged Bar
Machined Bar:
Unidirectional grain flow has been cut when changing contour, exposing grain ends. This renders the material more liable to fatigue and more sensitive to stress corrosion cracking.
Machined Bar
Cast Bar:
No grain flow or directional strength is achieved through the casting process.
Cast Bar
Part Flexibility
1. Variety of Sizes
Limited only to the largest ingot that can be cast, open die forged part weights can run from a single pound to over 400,000 pounds. In addition to commonly purchased open die parts, forgings are often specified for their soundness in place of rolled bars or castings, or for those parts that are too large to produce by any other metalworking method.

Variety of Shapes2. Variety of Shapes
Shape design is just as versatile, ranging from simple bar, shaft and ring configurations to specialized shapes. These include multiple O.D./I.D. hollows, single and double hubs that approach closed die configurations, and unique, custom shapes produced by combining forging with secondary processes such as torch cutting, sawing and machining. Shape designs are often limited only by the creative skills and imagination of the forging supplier.

3. Metallurgical Spectrum
Forgings can be produced from literally all ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The forging process itself can be adjusted-through the selection of alloys, temperatures, working methods and post-forming techniques-to yield virtually any desired metallurgical property.

4. Quantity and Prototype Options
Virtually all open die and rolled ring forgings are custom made one at a time, providing the option to purchase one, a dozen or hundreds of parts as needed. An added benefit is the ability to offer open die prototypes in single piece or low volume quantities. No better way exists to test initial closed die forging designs, because open die forging imparts similar grain flow orientation, deformation, and other beneficial characteristics. In addition, the high costs and long lead times associated with closed die tooling and set-ups are eliminated.

Proceed to Next Section: Economic Advantages

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